Los nuevos dientes del Sernac

Mucho se ha dicho sobre que el Sernac habría quedado sin dientes a raíz de la forma en que finalmente entró en vigencia la nueva normativa que modifica y actualiza la Ley 19.496, conocida comúnmente como Ley de Protección al Consumidor. En efecto, las últimas modificaciones, junto con entregar facultades adicionales al Sernac, mejoran una serie de derechos de los consumidores. 

Quizás el más importante avance dice relación precisamente con el cambio institucional que se le imprime al Sernac, toda vez que ahora si podrá transformarse en un órgano fiscalizador, situación que antes no ocurría de manera eficaz, ya que carecía de los instrumentos legales para poder actuar como un controlador de los proveedores de bienes y servicios, donde en la mayoría de los casos el Sernac quedaba limitado a un rol de mediador no vinculante o bien un mero comunicador.

Esta nueva institucionalidad, permitirá tener un órgano con facultades de fiscalización efectivas, donde incluso tendrá facultades de sancionar y multar a aquellas empresas que se nieguen a dicha fiscalización. Por otra parte, la facultad sancionatoria que ejercerá el Sernac y el aumento en las multas, deberían actuar como un medio disuasivo en cuanto al no cumplimiento de la normativa vigente. También, el Sernac tendrá la facultad de establecer normas vinculantes que serán obligatorias para todos los agentes de consumo, entregándole a este una importante facultad normativa que hoy día ejercen la mayoría de las superintendencias.

Del mismo modo, los consumidores han sido dotados de una serie de derechos adicionales, como por ejemplo el plazo de prescripción para poder iniciar acciones se extiende de 6 meses a 2 años, lo cual significa un avance relevante, sobre todo teniendo presente el derecho comparado. Asimismo, la posibilidad de que se pueda solicitar el daño moral en las acciones colectivas era de toda lógica, ya que ese tipo de indemnización ya estaba plenamente consagrada en materia de acciones individuales.

En resumen, creemos que se ha logrado un avance importante en materia de consumo, dotando a nuestro Sernac de una institucionalidad similar a la que hoy tiene por ejemplo la Fiscalía Nacional Económica, pero sin traspasar los límites institucionales de nuestro ordenamiento jurídico.


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